Sociology-education revision

Assess the Marxist View of the Role of Education in Society

According to Marxists, modern societies are Capitalist, and are structured along class-lines, and such societies are divided into two major classes – The Bourgeois elite who own and control the means of production who exploit the Proletariat by extracting surplus value from them. Traditional Marxists understand the role of education in this context – education is controlled by the elite class (The Bourgeoisie) and schools forms a central part of the superstructure through which they maintain ideological control of the proletariat.

Firstly, Louis Altusser argued that state education formed part of the ‘ideological state apparatus’: the government and teachers control the masses by injecting millions of children with a set of ideas which keep people unaware of their exploitation and make them easy to control.

According to Althusser, education operates as an ideological state apparatus in two ways; Firstly, it transmits a general ideology which states that capitalism is just and reasonable – the natural and fairest way of organising society, and portraying alternative systems as unnatural and irrational Secondly, schools encourage pupils to passively accept their future roles, as outlined in the next point…

Secondly, the second function schools perform for Capitalism is that they produce a compliant and obedient workforce…

In ‘Schooling in Capitalist America’ (1976) Bowles and Gintis suggest that there is a correspondence between values learnt at school and the way in which the workplace operates. The values, they suggested, are taught through the ‘Hidden Curriculum’, which consists of those things that pupils learn through the experience of attending school rather than the main curriculum subjects taught at the school. So pupils learn those values that are necessary for them to tow the line in menial manual jobs.

For example passive subservience of pupils to teachers corresponds to the passive subservience of workers to managers; acceptance of hierarchy (authority of teachers) corresponds to the authority of managers; and finally there is ‘motivation by external rewards: students are motivated by grades not learning which corresponds to being motivated by wages, not the joy of the job.

A third Marxist idea is that schools reproduce class inequality. In school, the middle classes use their material and cultural capital to ensure that their children get into the best schools and the top sets. This means that the wealthier pupils tend to get the best education and then go onto to get middle class jobs. Meanwhile working class children are more likely to get a poorer standard of education and end up in working class jobs. In this way class inequality is reproduced

Fourthly, schools legitimate class inequality. Marxists argue that in reality class background and money determines how good an education you get, but people do not realize this because schools spread the ‘myth of meritocracy’ – in school we learn that we all have an equal chance to succeed and that our grades depend on our effort and ability. Thus if we fail, we believe it is our own fault. This legitimates or justifies the system because we think it is fair when in reality it is not.

Finally, Paul Willi’s classic study Learning to Labour (1977) criticises aspects of Traditional Marxist theory.

Willis’ visited one school and observed 12 working class rebellious boys about their attitude to school and attitudes to future work. Willis described the friendship between these 12 boys (or the lads) as a counter-school culture. They attached no value to academic work, more to ‘having a laff’ and that the objective of school was to miss as many lessons as possible.

Willis argued that pupils rebelling are evidence that not all pupils are brainwashed into being passive, subordinate people as a result of the hidden curriculum. Willis therefore criticizes Traditional Marxism. These pupils also realise that they have no real opportunity to succeed in this system, so they are clearly not under ideological control.

However, the fact that the lads saw manual work as ‘proper work’ and placed no value of academic work, they all ended up failing their exams, and as a result had no choice but to go into low-paid manual work, and the end result of their active rebellion against the school was still the reproduction of class inequality. Thus this aspect of Marxism is supported by Willis’ work.


Sociology-families and households revision!

families and Households

Marriage, Divorce and Cohabitation:

Changing Patterns of Marriage

Explaining the Long Term Decrease in Marriage

  • There are four main sociological explanations when explaining the long term decrease in marriage.

1. Economic factors – increasing property prices in recent years may be one factor leading to couples delaying marriage until later life. The average deposit on a first time home is now over £30,000 and with the average cost of a wedding being £18,000, it is more financially viable to buy a house first and then marry in their 30’s opposed to marring earlier and then having to rent or live with parents

2. Changing gender roles – Liberal Feminists point out that now more than half of the workforce is now female and so women no longer have to be married to be financially secure. According to the genderquake theory, economic power is shifting to women with the majority of jobs in the service sector and so marriage is a poor option for women in a female economy.

3. Moral decline – the New Right blame the decline of marriage on moral decline as a result of the breakdown of social institutions and due to too much acceptance of diversity. The result is an inability to commit to each other and they view this as both bad for society and bad for the socialisation of the young generation.

4. Consumer society – Postmodernists see the decline of marriage as a result of the consumer society characterised by greater individual choice and freedom which is part of the process of individualisation. As such, as well as picking out materialistic goods and items, we also can pick out our own lifestyle and life course and as a result, marriage is a matter of individual choice. Additionally they cite secularisation as another cause of a decline in marriage as there is less social stigma attached to cohabiting or remarrying after divorce.

  • Giddens’ work on ‘Pure Relationships’ demonstrates how although people may still value marriage, changes in the social structure may make relationships harder to start or maintain.

Explaining the Trends in Marriage

  • Morgan sees rising cohabitation as part of a trend in which marriage is going out of fashion.
    • Rather than acting as a prelude to married life, Morgan believes that it represents an increase in the number of sexual partners and the frequency of partner change.
    • Cohabiting couples stay together for less time than married couples.
  • Chandler argues cohabitation is a relatively stable, long term alternative to marriage.
    • The BAS found evidence of increasing cohabitation outside of marriage with younger people being more likely to cohabit than older couples. The survey also shows support for long term relationships, with the average cohabiting couple having lived together for 6.5 years.
  • Giddens points out that the nature of love and relationships has changed in late modern society.
    • In the 18th Century marriage was only for money, wealth and status. It allowed the family name to be passed on and was rarely based on personal choice. It also served to produce children as it was the most obvious institution to perform such function. It was love that was for drama and sex. The two could never mix.
    • This changed in the early 19th Century as love should come first, and practical considerations second. Marriage should be the consequence of love. Today, most people expect to have a choice in who we marry, and to marry someone whom we share a profound emotional connection with.
    • As a result there are much greater expectations such as a superb lover, devoted parent, and attentive counsellor. In such a way, relationships will only continue so long as the partners’ needs are met. If the needs are not met, the relationship will breakdown resulting in a pattern of serial monogamy.
  • Evaluations:
    • People are not open and honest enough and don’t talk about their relationship as confluent love or a pure relationship.
    • Situations regarding serial monogamy become increasingly complex with the involvement of children.

Alternatives for Married Couples

  • People’s attitudes towards marriage have changed so that it is no longer seen as a necessary tradition or sacred duty. As a result marriage rates have declined drastically and marriage is now seen as a choice.
    • As a result, there is greater family diversity.
  • Most people still couple up and cohabitation has increased. There are currently over 2 million cohabiting couples in the UK and it is the fastest growing family type.
    • Cohabiting couples are more likely to breakup, so relationships have become more unstable resulting in a pattern of serial momogamy.
  • Higher levels of divorce create more single parent households, single person households, and reconstituted households.
  • It is important to not emphasise the decline of marriage as most households are still headed by a married couple.

Changing Patterns in Divorce

Key Divorce Statistics from the ONS

  • There has been a long term increase in the overall divorce rate.
  • Since 2005 the divorce rate has declined.
  • It is expected that 42% of marriages will end in divorce.
  • One in seven divorces are a result of adultery.
  • 9% of couples divorcing had both been divorced before.
  • Women were granted 65% of all divorces.
  • 71% of divorces were first marriages.
  • The increase in divorce rate was particularly rapid following the 1969 Divorce Act.

Explaining the Long Term Increase in the Divorce Rate

  • There are six main reasons to explain the long term increase in divorce rate.

1. Social Policy – following the 1969 Divorce Act, there was a rapid increase in divorce, particularly in the early 70’s as it extended the grounds of divorce to ‘irretrievable breakdown’ making it possible if only one partner wanted a divorce.

  • This cannot explain all of the increase, given that the divorce rate had been rising prior to the law change and continued to for many years after.

2. Economic Factors – increasing inequality in the UK means that the lower socioeconomic classes get paid less compared to the rising living costs. Both partners now need to do paid work in order to get by, which puts a strain on the marriage causing higher numbers getting divorced.

  • Divorce rates are in fact higher amongst poorer families.

3. Functionalism – There are a number of reasons linked to the Functional Fit Theory that explain the increase in divorce.

  • Goode – conflict has increased but the family has become much more isolated from other kin, placing increased burden on the marital couple who have little support from other relatives.
  • Dennis – the fewer functions the family performs, the weaker the bonds between husband and wife.
  • Allan and Crowe – the family is no longer an economic unit, making it easier for families to break up.

4. The New Right – Increasingly generous welfare benefits for single mothers is a crucial factor which allows women to divorce. If divorce occurs within a family, 9/10 times the child/children will stay with the mum, making it difficult to find work, hence benefits are a necessary link in the chain of explaining increasing divorce.

  • It is also a sign of wider moral decline.

5. Feminism – changing gender roles and women’s position in society is crucial to explain the increase in divorce rate. Women are more likely to be employed and less financially dependent on their husbands and thus freer to end a marriage.

  • Giddens – the impact of the Feminist movement and advances in contraception mean women are freer to leave unhappy marriages.
  • Feminists acknowledge that the advances of women can be exaggerated as women are paid less than men and traditional gender norms still remain in many families.

6. Postmodernism – Both religion and traditional values are in decline. As a result there is less social stigma attached to getting a divorce and so people are freer to choose to get a divorce. This reflects the declining importance of social structure and the rise of consumer culture.

  • Giddens – the nature of marriage has changed as the nature of intimate relationships has changed. In 18th Century, marriage was more an economic arrangement as ideas about romantic love developed. During late modernity, plastic sexuality developed which was about sex for pleasure, not conceiving children. Relationships and marriage is no longer seen as permanent. Marriage now is based on confluent love, which is dependent on both partners benefiting from the relationship. Couples no longer stay together due to a sense of duty, so divorce and relationship breakdown are much more common.
  • Beck – divorce has increase due to individualisation. There are more opportunities for individuals, especially women and the opportunity form individuals to make more decisions about every aspect of their lives. Also increased conflict has emerged from increased choice and uncertainty which leads to chaotic relationships explaining the higher divorce rate.

1969 Divorce Act

  • Separation was now allowed as a reason for divorce so now more couples were able to get a divorce without faking it.
  • Only one partner could file for divorce regardless of gender and have it granted, in contrast to the previous law.
    • This change in law alone is insufficient to explain the increasing divorce rate as prior to these changes, if a couple wanted a divorce, they just faked it. Additionally there are other social factors to consider as the divorce rate began its steep increase prior to the reform which was a means of catching up with social attitudes.

Alternatives to Divorce

  • Legal Separation – An arrangement by which a couple remain married but live apart following a court order.
  • Empty Shell Marriage – refers to when the spouses continue to live under the same roof but as separate individuals.
  • Desertion – the act by which a person abandons and forsakes their marriage without justification.

Explaining the Recent Decline in Divorce Rate

  • The divorce rate is now the lowest since 1974.
    • The increase of immigrants from more traditional societies can account for some of this decline which keeps divorce rates down, and birth rates up.
    • The decline of marriage can account for a more significant reduction in divorce rate.
    • As less people get married, or get married later in life, it leaves less room for divorce.

Perspectives Applied to Declining Marriage and Increasing Divorce


  • They would view the decline of marriage as tradition as a good thing because traditional marriage is a patriarchal institution. Most divorces are initiated by women which highlights how marriage works better for men than women.
    • Radical feminists would point out that the increase in divorce has not necessarily benefited women as 90% of cases result in the children staying with the mother, these single parent families which are mostly female suffer higher levels of poverty and stigma.

The New Right

  • The New Right would argue that there trends are bad for society, as they indicate a decline in morality and a breakdown of social structure and order. The family is supposed to be the fundamental building block of society, and it is difficult to see what will replace it.
    • Without the nuclear family, we risk less effective primary socialisation and more problem children as well as much more anomie for adults.


  • The decline in marriage and increase in divorce reflect the fact that we are part of a consumer society in which individual choice is paramount.
  • They reject the idea that the traditional nuclear family is better for society than other forms, so these trends are not significant.
    • People still value marriage but changes to the social structure make it harder to maintain stable relationships, let alone start them. Greater gender equality means that it is harder to please both partners, and the fact that both partners have to do paid work doesn’t help with the need for communication, required to keep a relationship going.
    • People delay getting married, not only because they want to establish a career first, but also due to the increasing costs of mortgages and weddings. People also delay getting married by cohabiting for a period of time first to ‘test the waters’.

Personal Life Perspective

  • They recognise that the current trends are inevitable in a postmodern society. They argue that people can still have meaningful relationships outside of marriage and therefore do not feel the need to fill a void by choosing a life partner.
    • People lead active social lives and may be close to relatives, friends and pets and therefore don’t feel the need to marry.
    • People may also be put off by the high number of divorces, especially if others in their close circle had gone through it.

Thank you Mom!

Your arms were always open when i needed a hug.Your heart understood when i needed a friend.Your gentle eyes were stern when i needed a lesson.Your strength and love has guided me.You have always stayed by my side no matter what and had faith in me when i didn’t. You helped me through every stress i had during exams and still do now.Thank you for everything you have done and still do.I know there are times i don’t show you i’m grateful for every little thing you have done but i want you to know that i love you and will always appreciate how much you have helped me become who i am now.You are amazing and i really don’t know what i would have done without you.You truly are the best friend and mom anyone could ever ask for.Thank you!

Loads and loads of love from Rhiannon.xx

Ode to the pug!

Ode to the Pug

A Sonnet by Rhiannon

My caring pug, you inspire me to write.
How I love the way you hug, laugh and play,
Invading my mind day and through the night,
Always dreaming about the holiday.

Let me compare you to an unique moon?
You are more friendly and more magical.
Bleak sun heats the special peaches of June,
And summertime has the creative classical.

How do I love you? Let me count the ways.
I love your intelligent heart and eyes.
How your personality fills my days!
My love for you is the daring disguise.

Now I must away with a glaring heart,
Remember my magical words whilst we’re apart.

Sociology Revision:Families and Households


Family Types:

Nuclear Family

A traditional family with a mother and a father with children, the male is the breadwinner (earner).

Extended Family

A family which extends beyond the nuclear family to include grandparents and other relatives.

Patriarchal Family

A family where the father is the authority figure.

Matriarchal Family

A family where the mother is the authority figure.

Symmetrical Family

A family in which both husband and wife do paid employment and both do some housework and provide childcare.

Reconstituted Family

Where two sets of children become one family when their divorced parents marry each other.

Lone-Parent Family

A family consisting of one parent and a child or children who live together.

Beanpole Family

A family which consists of many generations with a few who keep in contact with each other.

Gay/Lesbian Family

A family led by a gay or lesbian couple.

Single Person Household

One person living alone.

Geography Revision!

Globalization is used to describe the ways in which places and people are now more connected with one another than they used to be.

Global flows:






Tncs or transnational corporation is a company with many branches in many countries.Coca Cola’s spread throughout the world is an example of globalization.

Time-space compression:

heightened connectivity changes our conception of time,distance and potential bourners to the migration of people,goods,money and information.

Shrinking world:

As travel times fall due to new inventions different places approach each other in space-time:they begin to feel closer together than in the past.AS a result of advances in travel communications and technology global flows more quickly which has made the world seem like a smaller place.

Free trade-is a trade policy that does not restrict imports or exports;it is the idea of the free market as applied to international trade.In government,free trade is predominately advocated by political parties that had right wing or liberal economic positions,while economically left wing political parties generally support protectionism the opposite of free trade.

Foreign direct investment-is a investment made by an business interests located in another country.Generally;FDI takes place when an investor establishes foreign business operations or acquires foreign business assets including establishing ownership interest in another foreign company.

Offshoring-some TNC’S build their own new production facilities in offshore low wages economies.

Foreign mergers-two firms in different countries join forces to create a single entity.

Foreign acquisitions-when a TNC lances a take over of a country.

Transfer pricing-some TNC’S such as Starbucks had sometimes controlled profits through a subsidiary company in a low tax country such as Ireland.

Free-market Liberalization-the lessoning of government restrictions in a economy in exchange for greater participation by private entities.

Privatization-transfering ownership of a business from the public sector to the private sector.

Trade blocs:

EU-European Union which has free trade agreements and free movement of people,goods and ideas.

ASEAN-promotes peace and stability-it’s members have pledged to not have nucleur weapons.Only encourage movement of goods and skill labour.

Composite measures of globalization:

AT Kearney Index-

Key measures-

Economic intergration-trade and FDI

Personal contact/travel remittances and pesonal transfers,telephone traffic

Technology-internet users,secures servers

Political engagement-treaties/international organisations/in peace keeping/government transfers


It covers 96% of worlds gdp

It covers 84% of worlds population

Allows for comparision between countries and over time.


Only 64 countries are included in the index.

limited data collected

heavily weighted towards economic


Smaller countries tend to take the top places in the index due to higher proportion of FDI-therefore suggesting an over importance of the size of the country.

Measured scale 0-1

KOF index-

Key measures-

Flows of goods,long distance,capital,services,information

Tarriffs-restrictions,trade barriers

Personal contact

Measure of globalization on economic and social and political dimensions-spread of ideas,people


Index allows comparing degree and changes in globalization over a large number of countries and more than 30 years.The KOF index of globalization 2009 is available for 158 countries over the period 1970-2006 calculated on 24 variables


The KOF index of 2009 shows that globalization is still on the rise,driven by increased economic and political globalization while social globalization stagnates.Political has smallest weighting but economic and social have higher weightings and are more evenly weighted than Kearney index.

TNC-any corporation that is registered and operates in more than one country at a time,also called a multinational corporation.It has its headquarters in one country and operates in another country.

Glocalization-means adapting the goods or services of a business to increase consumer appeal in different local markets.

Global shift-is the movement of economic activity from MEDCs initially to NICs and more recently to LEDCs. Originally this was the movement of manufacturing activity,but more recently service activity has been involved.

Rural to urban migration-Movement of people from a rural area to a urban area.Countryside to city/town.

Alone in the darkness!

The night falls in a heavy, suffocating cloak, cold and alone are we.
The understanding for which you sacrifice yourself
Flares once, then dies,
Swept away by guilt.
All hope must surely perish.

Your love is no more.
How could you leave me?
Angels surround us, crying,
We have lost our light.

equality and diversity speech!

It doesn’t matter what race, religion or ethnic background you’re from, everyone deserves to have the same opportunity to succeed. No one should be treated differently for being different. It doesn’t matter whether you’re disabled or not because we should be treated equal and not judged for having something wrong with you. We should respect each other for who we are and not what we choose to believe in.Many people are discriminated against for their race, religion, disability or even gender. It isn’t right. We should be supporting each other not upsetting each other. We may have different interests but there is somethings we are all good at. We should be proud to be different, it is what makes us unique.

Have you ever been discriminated against? Or felt scared of being judged for who you are? Or isolated from the rest of the class for being different? It’s horrid! Everyone should be given the same chance to do things or go to places without the fear of being treated like a foreigner. Have you ever been stopped from having the job because of your race or gender? Told “Sorry, you’re not right for the job!” while you watch someone else get the job. No one deserves to put up with this. Yes, we are different but we are different in a good way-Wouldn’t it be a boring society if we were all the same. Respect the fact you have someone with different hobbies or interests to talk to and encourage them to do well. It would be a much happier place to live in if no one judged people for what they like, do or believe in and just learnt to accept everyone for who we actually are.

equality and diversity poem!

It doesn’t matter if

Your black, white, Asian

Or mixed race,

It’s your personality

That counts.

It doesn’t matter

Whether you’re disabled

Or not,

We are all equal.

It doesn’t matter if

You’re lesbian, straight,

Or even gay,

Love is love

No matter who

You have a

Relationship with.

We may look different,

But we are similar

In many ways,

With all the things

We like,

And interests we have.

Without diversity

Where would the

Culture be?

We are all equal,

We are all unique,

We should all be


And given the same


Think of all the

Different music,

Foods and art

And ask yourself,

Where would this be

If there wasn’t

Human diversity?

And next time

You want to judge

Think about how

It will affect others

And respect

Everyone you see.


Relaxing sleep music for deep sleeping and stress relief. Fall asleep to beautiful nature videos and use the relaxing music as sleeping music, soothing meditation music, relaxation music, study music and more. Watch it now!

Do you struggle to sleep?Do you stress a lot,especially before exams or need a relaxing environment to study?You should listen to this!


Sometimes life may get you down,

And you have gotta keep trying.

Even when you want to stop,

Remember not to give up.

I know some things may be tough,

It isn’t easy,

But you have got to get through it.

You may not always be up for it,

But you take the challenge

And try your best,

As you know it will

Work out in the end.

There are times when you

Question yourself,

Especially when you feel in doubt,

But you take the risk

No matter what.

There are some things you do,

That you’ll regret

But remember everyone makes mistakes,

No one is perfect.

Sometimes you put too much pressure

On yourself,

And blame yourself for things

That go wrong,

But deep down you know

That nothing is your fault.

There are times when

You question why you’re living,

But you have your dreams,

Your hopes and aspirations,

So you have to stay strong

To follow your career

And never give up.


I get laughed at,
i get ignored,
i often feel trapped,
and i keep my thoughts stored.

People can be cruel
and very mean,
but no matter what i follow my dreams.

Life has waves;
i know that.
but i stand brave
and just take the crap.
i may feel exhausted
but no matter what,
i follow my dreams.

i know what i want,
and i won’t stop trying.
Quitting?i can’t
for now i’m flying.
it’s impossible it seems,
but no matter what
i follow my dreams.

Positive poem

Discover all the positive things
Life has in store for you
And move forward
To discover who you are
And fill your moments
With yes and possibilities

Don’t sit down with negative thoughts
Or bow to negative circumstance
Decide your future
And don’t give up

Learn to stand up
To your ideas and dreams
And when you fall
Try to bounce back
Renew your spirit
And grab the moment
And prove your worth…

Human Equality

Just because your from different ethnic backgrounds to others doesn’t mean you shouldn’t get the same opportunity to things like university,education and jobs.You shouldn’t be pushed out for being different or told”sorry you can’t have the job” while you watch others get that same job.Just because you have a disability doesn’t mean you can’t do the same things as everyone else.People shouldn’t judge.Just because your not a biological child of a family doesn’t give them the right to say”i don’t want to look after you ,your not my child” you still deserve the same love and protection.Some people in society don’t understand how it affects others health and feelings.

  • Suicide statistics:In 2017 there were 6,213 suicides in the UK and Republic of Ireland.
  • 5,821 suicides were registered in the UK and 392 occurred in the Republic of Ireland.
  • In the UK men remain three times as likely to take their own lives than women, and in the Republic of Ireland four times more likely.
  • The highest suicide rate in the UK was for men aged 45-49.
  • The highest suicide rate in the Republic of Ireland was for men aged 25–34 (with an almost identical rate for men aged 45–54).
  • There has been a significant decrease in male suicide in the UK, and the male suicide rate is the lowest in over 30 years.
  • The suicide rate in Scotland decreased between 2016 and 2017 – this appears to be driven by a decrease in the female suicide rate.
  • Suicide in young men in Scotland increased for the third consecutive year in 2017.
  • The suicide rate in Northern Ireland has remained relatively stable between 2016 and 2017. There was an increase in the male suicide rate and decrease in the female rate.
  • Suicide rates for men and women, are higher in Northern Ireland than other UK nations – however rates are not necessarily directly comparable.
  • Suicide has also continued to fall in both males and females in the Republic of Ireland. 
  • Mental health statistics:In 2013, there were 8.2 million cases of anxiety in the UK.1
  • In England women are almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with anxiety disorders as men
    In 2013, depression was the second leading cause of years lived with a disability worldwide, behind lower back pain. In 26 countries, depression was the primary driver of disability.

  • Bipolar is the fourth most-common mental health problem worldwide after depression, anxiety and schizophrenia.
  • In the past year, 74% of people have felt so stressed they have been overwhelmed or unable to cope.

Age differences

  • 30% of older people reported never feeling overwhelmed or unable to cope in the past year, compared to 7% of young adults.

Behavioural effects

  • 46% reported that they ate too much or ate unhealthily due to stress. 29% reported that they started drinking or increased their drinking, and 16% reported that they started smoking or increased their smoking.

Psychological effects

  • 51% of adults who felt stressed reported feeling depressed, and 61% reported feeling anxious.
  • Of the people who said they had felt stress at some point in their lives, 16% had self harmed and 32% said they had had suicidal thoughts and feelings.
  • 37% of adults who reported feeling stressed reported feeling lonely as a result.

Causes of stress

  • 36% of all adults who reported stress in the previous year cited either their own or a friend/relative’s long-term health condition as a factor. This rose to 44% of adults over 55.
  • Of those who reported feeling stressed in the past year, 22% cited debt as a stressor.
  • For people who reported high levels of stress, 12% said that feeling like they need to respond to messages instantly was a stressor.
  • 49% of 18-24 year olds who have experienced high levels of stress, felt that comparing themselves to others was a source of stress, which was higher than in any of the older age groups.
  • 36% of women who felt high levels of stress related this to their comfort with their appearance and body image, compared to 23% of men.
  • Housing worries are a key source of stress for younger people (32% of 18-24 year olds cited it as a source of stress in the past year). This is less so for older people (22% for 45-54 year olds and just 7% for over 55s).
  • Younger people have higher stress related to the pressure to succeed. 60% of 18-24 year olds and 41% of 25-34 year olds cited this, compared to 17% of 45-54s and 6% of over 55s).Even though not all this is because of unequal treatment sometimes it does because people suffering feel they can’t cope with the horrid way other people in society treat them.So respect everyone because no matter who you are everybody deserves a equal chance to live a happy life.

Geography speech!

Globalization affects us.Have you realized just how much workers are suffering from the dangerous working conditions and extreme long hours?It’s horrible!We go into work not knowing if the building will collapse.Recently,a woman has fainted at work from being overtired and hungry.Over 50,000 workers have been sent to emergency services each year for injuries.Don’t this make you care!Don’t this make you realize how much globalization has affected us.These big TNC’s coming in has increased the working poor and economic inequalities of many Asian countries.It seems that you don’t care how much we’re suffering because you earn so much money from us.Something needs to be done.Someone needs to listen.NOW!Before it’s too late.These injuries may turn into deaths before someone listens.Haven’t you even realized just how much carbon dioxide is being put into the atmosphere and our water systems from the big company’s operating in our country.It affects our health.Many workers end up suffering with askema or lung diseases or have diseases from drinking contaminated water.Don’t you want to save our people or even future generations from suffering like we have.If you do then you have got to listen and do something.

Exam Worries,Exam Stress!

In a strange world.It feels like i’m dreaming,it’s just really strange. No one understands.It’s hard to explain.They just see my happy and don’t seem to know that i am upset inside-just because i’m smiling to be polite.It feels like i’m getting weaker and weaker every day.I find it hard to sleep.It’s hard to let out how i feel so it’s just trapped inside a book in me-i get scared people will judge for how i feel or laugh if i cried.It is difficult to cope with the constant fear of failure or nightmares of failing the exams.I’m stressed.I’m worried.There’s just too much on my mind.I try not to cry.I try to be strong but on the inside i’m weak.Why is this happening to me?Why?It is like i’m trapped inside my own feelings trying to find a route to escape.


Writing means more than just words on a page,

or a scribbled note.

Writing expresses the feelings and emotions

of the writer.

Writing shows the dedication

the writer has to reading

and the time it took to make the

work publishable.

So respect it,

read it and try to question

why the writer wrote it!

Writers upset!

People call it rubbish,

people call it crap,

you try to ignore it,

but you feel overwhelmed,

you ponder over books for


looking for new ideas,

though none of them are

as good as the first,

tears soak your clear page,

as your hard work is

turned upside down.

the words break my heart,

smear my page,

don’t they understand

how much it hurts

to see you’re own

work be hurt.

Witch Diaries.The life of students at Bayside School of Magic!

Chapter one:Destiny

It feels strange being in the magical world when everyone already knows me.I’m in my first year at Bayside School of Magic and i’m already getting loads of homework.

My dark arts lessons with Mr Morris are great.I love being in Otto’s magical creature lessons as he really understands me but i hate being in my Spells and Potions lesson with Professor Cauldron.He constantly tells me off for no reason and he hates me just because he was enemies with my dad,Paul.It’s silly really because i am good at making potions and casting spells and he acts like i’m rubbish at everything.

Chapter two:Eliza

Professor Cauldron’s lessons are so interesting.He always tells Destiny off and it’s funny to watch.I hate that half-giant Otto who is always helping Destiny and praising her while telling me off.I wonder why anyone even likes Destiny.

Chapter three:Destiny

I snuck out last night to Willow Woods which forbidden to go to.Otto was there so i helped him to finish watering the plants then sat with him to have tea and cakes.I have Spells and Potions tomorrow and i haven’t done my essay yet.

Chapter four:Millie

Two weeks till my mock exams.I’m very nervous.I have been revising every day in the library but i haven’t been sleeping due to the fear of failure.Destiny has been trying to support me and encourage me but i am really scared.It doesn’t help that Eliza keeps on trying to make me feel self conscious about myself.

Chapter five:Eliza

Silly,little Millie is getting all worked up about exams.Why?If you know it then why revise.It’s stupid really.I’m not doing revision.I don’t need school anyway because as soon as i’m sixteen i’m helping Pilescu and his team fight.Dark arts lessons are silly as well, i already know it from my father,Pilescu’s friend.

Chapter six:Destiny

I had detention yesterday for not completing homework.It wasn’t my fault though i was trying to prepare for exams and get my team ready for the flying match.I was then cheering my friend Millie up who was panicing about her upcoming exams.

Chapter seven:Millie

I got back my results today and i done better than i thought.

Dark arts-P


Magical Creatures-A

Ancient Runes-A

Cultural Study-E

Potions and Spells-A

I only failed Dark Arts.

Chapter eight:Destiny

The end of a long year.My team won the match against Eliza’s team.Lol!

I passed my exams.

Dark Arts-O

Spells and Potions-A


Magical Creatures-A



Magic Spelling-A

I wonder what will happen next year.Ready for a long summer to start.

The Story of Pilescu

The orphanage:Chapter 1

The building looked old and dark from the outside with a garden of over grown plants.The windows were pitch black.It felt as spooky as a graveyard.

It was like being in a completely new building when you stepped inside.It was full of colourful pictures,bright walls and neatly stacked books on the shelves.

The staff were really kind to the children and the children hardly ever squabbled and didn’t disobey rules.There was one boy though that was stranger than all the rest.

The strange boy:Chapter 2

He was a slender and tall boy with baby blue eyes.He was said to be strange from a baby when he never cried unlike other newborns.Then as he gradually got older there was a question of what he was.He could hurt the other children without touching them.He could trap animals without being near them.And he stole the most unusual of things like:trophies,silver watches,lockets and medals.There was the cave incident a week ago when he said he was taking two children out to play with him.They walked to this dark,old cave where he asked them to go onto the boat and they never came back to the orphanage.Some people believed he drowned but there was questions of other ways he did it.But how?

Chapter 3:Miss Cackle’s visit to the orphanage

Witch Life!


A bang,a flash and a scream.A young mom,Lucy was trying her hardest to protect her daughter from the most dangerous wizard known,Master Pilescu.Pilescu stepped over Paul’s rotting body and aimed his wand at the little baby.Lucy yelled,”Please,no,don’t hurt her,hurt me instead”but Pilescu laughed and ignored her.Then with a flash of light,Pilescu shouted”Patricula Talismaye”,the killing curse which no one has ever survived.Lucy fell to the cold,dark ground and died.Destiny,her daughter,however had survived the deadly attack.Pilescu vanished into the night.

Otto zoomed to the graveyard on Sirus’s motorbike and picked up Destiny who he carried to the Weatherwood’s house and placed by the door.

Chapter one:The start of it all.

The Weatherwood family were Destiny’s only living relations she had left.Aunt Susan was Lucy’s sister.Uncle Mike and Cousin Daisy were Susan’s daughter and husband.

They all hated Lucy and her family for having magic and disliked Destiny because she was Lucy’s daughter.

She didn’t even have a proper room-Just an old,dusty cupboard under the stairs.She felt lonely but tried not to complain as Mike loves finding excuses to shout at her.She was tall and thin unlike Daisy who was overweight and short.She didn’t even get brought new clothes and was given all of Daisy’s old clothes.They were baggy and cold.

She was in her room reading when Mike called,”Destiny,come now”.She ignored it.He shouted,”Get here right now”.She moved out of her room and said,”Yeah,what’s wrong?”

“We’re going out.And you’re coming with us.”She followed them to the car and sat quietly looking out the smeared glass.

Emma's blog

The chime

Ive always heard it, the chime. Ever since I was little I heard it. My dad said it was my imagination but I thaught it was my mom in heaven checking up on me so everytime I headed it I’d tell her I loved her and I’m beingl a good girl.

I never knew how she died. My daddy told me she just did and no one knew why but I knew he was hiding sonothing so one day I sneaked into his office trying to find out what he was hiding but there was nothing. I heard footsteps but they wernt coming from in the room and they wernt coming from outside the room, it was comming through the walls. I thaught I was going crazy but then I heard the chime again and I shouted from the top of my lungs like I do everyday and…

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madeley woods

“Oh come on,” Danny pleaded, “don’t be a coward”.

“It’s not that. I just don’t want to”.

Madeley woods: the place where all kids thought it would be fun to hang out once Autumn came, once the darkness began appearing in the skies, once the crunch of twigs and leaves added to the eeriness of the place. Well there was no way I was going to go there. Not again.

I turned and left: the taunts of cowardice were easier to bear than the rotting face…Those torturing eyes.

It was a year ago. The orchestra of the woods wailed their melancholy tune as I turned and ducked between the trees beside the path, crunching dead leaves beneath my feet. The night was approaching. As I continued I heard a noise. An owl. But other that the owl and my slow footsteps it was silent. The trees bare fingers hanged down and tapped my back. I turned. I shuddered.

Between the hanging branches, buried under the sheets of falling darkness, a shape caught my eye. A figure which seemed to rise slightly as I watched it.A human shape. It was surrounded by a black cape.Slowly.Slowly, it continued. Now I saw a human shape striding confidently towards me.As it got closer I could make out a face. It seemed to be pale and extremely ill. I concentrated hard and saw its torturing red eyes glaring at me with a look of hatred and loathing. It began to move more quickly; its red eyes watching me.Its expression one of malevolence. I turned and ran rapidly away from the spooky woods. I ran. I tripped. Then stood back up and ran. My heart raced with fear. Still I ran and I didn’t look back.

But I never found out who that creature was and that is why i couldn’t go back. I watched that group that day; and thought how brave they thought they were going into the woods. It’s not bravery when you don’t know what’s out there. They would learn. They would find out. It was only a matter of time.


It was a cold,dark winters night and the ground was covered with a blanket of white crystals of snow.I walked  through the misty woods and heard a small voice cry,”help!”.

I asked “who’s there?”but there was no reply.I felt the coldness pour down my tiny back.I continued through the mist and saw a cottage door.It was rusty and old.

I hesitate.Then slowly move towards the door.Then stop.And listen.There is not a single noise coming from the kitchen.I turn the rusty door handle and step inside.A sad,quiet cry begged for company and help.I follow the sound of the cries to this dark,small corridor.I turn on my torch and see a small door.It was locked.My heart beat with fear.What if i’m caught?The cries got louder and louder and louder.Someone must be trapped in this secret room.But who?And why?

Footsteps tiptoe up the long,creaky staircase and…I hide myself in the darkness of the corridor and try to be as quiet as possible.Someone moves towards me .I feel as small and scared as a rabbit being chased by a fox.A flash of a torch shines towards me and a figure moves confidently towards me.

As the light gets closer to me and i see a dark,terrifying face stare at me with a look of loathing and hatred.A human face!It steps towards me and pulls out a knife.A sharp,torturing knife which the figure pointed at my shaking,petrified body.I screamed.All of a sudden a black cloth covered my eyes and i was dragged into a room.Was it the secret room i couldn’t get into?I don’t know but all i know is i’m now a prisoner.Just like the other poor thing i heard cry.I fall asleep.

I wake up and hear the same cry and walk around the cold,strange room.I open a small cupboard and…I gasp!There was a tiny,little toddler lying there shivering.I take off my jacket and wrap the poor thing inside to keep it warm.It looked up at me and smiled.I gave it a hug then went over to the window.I stared through the window at the cottage garden and saw a big truck and two men talking.One of them looks like the one who trapped me.What are they up to?I try and think of a way to free myself and the little toddler.

A bottle falls out of my pocket and i remember what my friends said to do if i ever got trapped.Use invisible ink!So i get out my paper out and a pen and write a note.I then carefully open the window and throw the note onto the grass.Hopefully they find it!

In Sweet Meadows Way,Jade had just finished her letters for Christmas and looked at her shiny,silver watch.It was nearly 12pm and her best friend,Destiny,still hasn’t arrived at her house.What could of happened?Jade says to her mom,”I’m just going for a walk and i’ll be back by 4pm”.

“Ok,see you soon,”her mom replies,”and don’t go to far”.

Jade walks along the cold,isolated street and in the distance saw a misty,old cottage.She continued to walk along the path and sneaks through the garden to the door.Then she sees a piece of paper and uses a torch to check for invisible ink.She sees a note from her friend and rushes inside the cottage.A faint,sad cry could be heard.Trying hard not to make a sound she climbs up the stairs to a secret room.The cry gets louder and she hears someone talking to somebody.Is that my friend?She wonders.She turns on her torch and sees a tiny key on the floor.She turns the lock and sees her friend holding a tiny toddler.They both hug and run down the stairs.The toddler cries with hunger.I get a box of chocolate from the kitchen side and and go out of the cottage door.

We see the men who trapped me and phone the police.They said they were trying to find those men for weeks as they have already kidnapped over 50 children.We went home with the little toddler and i told my mom.She said she would look after the little toddler and we felt proud to have solved the mystery and we go up to my room to think of what we will solve next.

write a 300-400 word speech about something you feel passionate about.

Have you ever wondered what it would be like to be a famous best selling author?With thousands and thousands of books being sold all over the world and some of those being sold you can sign.Just the thought of teaching children to read and letting them learn from someone famous inspires me.About 99% of authors travel the world and teach the poorer countries or go into schools to give a speech.It’s amazing!Absolutely amazing!

However,it takes years of experience,hard work and training to become an author…to make a success.Authors don’t become famous straight away.They face many rejections and re-writes before a book is even published,before their words are understood,before they become successful!

You may think books are absolutely rubbish but you’re wrong.Books are one way to learn and understand difficult topics.Books are a way that many authors express their feelings,thoughts and beliefs that they find too difficult to speak.Books can help you to rewind,de-stress and relax after a long day of work.What would i do without books?A book is a key to your journey of success.

J.K.Rowlings is a best-selling famous author that has been a real inspiration to me.She brings characters to life with her strong imagination and the magical way she crafts her stories.I enjoyed all her books and hope to write like her in the future.

From a really young girl starting school i have always enjoyed English and had dreams of becoming an best selling author.I don’t just want to write books though.I want to educate children who are less fortunate than me and give speeches in schools and travel the world around me.It will be an experience that i’ll never forget.I really don’t know what i would do without books.I would be lost,stressed and would struggle to calm down because books have helped me forget about being stressed and everything around me and to relax.It’s a dream that i have always wished for.

From fiction to fact, stories to poetry, a million different genres or topics to choose from there will never be a book you’re not interested in so why don’t you pick one up and read a chapter each day.


As blue as a ocean,

As cold as a icicle,

Far away from the equator,

A deep pool of tears.

Crossing the streets,

Watching the children,

Look in misery,

Faces cold with fear,

We only live once

and their fortune has gone.

When i’m feeling blue

and you’re not here,

I feel my pulse rise,

Sadness is here!


I visit the place where we last met.

Cold,wet and dark,

It feels strange without you.

I wish you were here!

When you was here:

The sun was out,

The sky was blue,

Everything was the same.

I wish you was still here.

You’re absence has made

everything feel different,

Everything has changed!

You’re gone!

Friends forever

Sometimes school can get you down,

And it’s like you’re always crying.

But you know you’ll always

have me there to make 

you feel like smiling.

’cause i know i can count on 

you to be there,

when i’m blue,

when we’re both alone together.

ooh yeah,there’s nothing we 

can’t do!

so,i hope we’ll stick together,

be best friends forever

and ever,

ooh best of friends

i know we’ll be,

ooh yeah,

best friends forever.

Tower of terror

You enter the tower completely ignoring the KEEP OUT sign.A dim light flickers in the cobwebby halls,then suddenly,the front door slams shut!Dust blows up and makes you sneeze..and a little girl’s voice says,”bless you”.

“Who’s there?” you scream and run towards the kitchen.

You start to explore the crumbling kitchen and find the table set for tea!There’s a glass of milk and a half-eaten sandwich on a plate.Then you hear a chair scraping back,footsteps and a key turning in the lock,but there’s no one to be seen!

It’s late now and you find yourself in a room with a plumptious bed.Ooh,the luxury!Then you spot a note on the pillow saying,”you MUST NOT look out the window between bedtime and dawn!”What will happen if you do?Can you resist?You decide not to.

You go to the next room.You’re reading by the fire in the cosy library then suddenly;the temperature drops  and it’s freezing!All at once a misty old book falls with a thud-eek!The pages fly open and you can’t believe what you see inside.Dead bodies and skeletons!Eyes stare at you as you go out of the room.

Walking along the corridor,you find a secret door leading you to a ballroom.A chandelier sparkles and you start to imagine it full of people at a ball,long dresses swirling as they dance to the music.Then you realize the room really is full of dancers,you’re dressed just like them and you can’t find you’re way out!

You push gently past the dancers and see a small dark door.It’s locked!You feel a hand touch your shoulder and turn around-no one seemed to be there.Then you hear something fall.It was a key!You sneak out of the room and go upstairs.

You dare to go into the attic desperate to see what’s inside.It’s full of dusty boxes and toys,but a large,sheet- covered object catches your eye.You slowly peel away the sheet to reveal-gasp-a painting that looks exactly like you.You open the dusty box and tear away the paper the hear a voice.It says,”You will never escape the tower now!”You turn around and see the photo was talking.You scream.You run and you hide.

You’re in a windowless room with a small mattress on the floor.You fall asleep.Still,you hear the voices in your head.You run to the bathroom.

You hear running water and step inside.The rusty taps are on filling the old-fashioned tub-but who turned them on?It wasn’t you!When you look into the steamy mirror,you see the face of a Victorian maid stare back at you…you run out of the room,down the creaky stairs and out of the door.

Out of breath,you pant and say to yourself,”i’m never going there again”.Someone from inside the tower hears you and says”we’ll see about that”.

You run quickly away from the tower and get lost.You’re stranded,lost and isolated.The tower was a nightmare that you’ll never forget!


Christmas is a special time
To give, to serve, to love.
It isn’t just about yourself,
But others that you think The presents, the trees, the glowing lights
Are fun but have no part
In what the real meaning of Christmas is…
That is in your heart.Even if other people don’t,
You should try to do
The things that you would want
Them to do to you!The holidays are a busy time,
But they are sometimes good
Because they keep you thinking
About others like you should.So this year, try to not think about yourself,
But think of the things you can do
To help others have a wonderful Christmas,
And you will find that you will be happy too.


i was born 22/07/2002.i went to William Reynolds primary school and nursery.

i went to  madeley academy and passed my gcse’s.

my gcse’s:

English literature-grade c

English language-grade c

maths-grade c

science combined-double award-grade c-c

business-grade a

ict-grade level 2 merit

geography-grade b


i love to read and write stories and poetry.

i love to knit bags and scarfs and make things.

i love to draw and colour pictures.


i  want to go to university and study english literature and creative writing .

i want to be a author or a teacher.


i am a kind and caring person and i’m patient and understanding always helping those who need it.


I see you there in front of me-

Your face,your hands,your eyes,

I hear you talk,I hear you tell

Your hopes your dreams your lies.

I walked with you a sunlit trail

Together hand in hand

Then twilight came and you were gone

And now alone I stand

The woods are cold the trees are black

The dark is closing in

And you have gone away from me

Your faultless light has dimmed

Betrayal is a empty space

Raw night cold room alone

And no one can redeem your face

Sweet knight safe light your gone